Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Utterances, Sentences, and Proposition in Semantic


DEFINITION OF PROPOSITION:
  • A proposition is that part of the meaning of the utterance of a declarative sentence which describes some state of affairs. 
  • In uttering a declarative sentence a speaker typically asserts a proposition.
  • The notion of truth can be used to decide whether two sentences express different propositions.
  • In a condition where o sentence is true while the other is false, they express different propositions.
  • True propositions correspond to facts, in the ordinary sense of the word fact. False propositions do not correspond to facts.

     RELATIONSHIP SUTTERANCES, SENTENCES, AND PROPOSITION:

     FAMILY TREE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UTTERANCES, SENTENCES, AND PROPOSITIONS:

    Based on the tree diagram above, we can conclude thatt a single proposition could be expressed by using several different sentences and each of these sentences could be uttered an infinite number of times

    Convention in Semantics

    CHARACTERISTICS:
              Anything written between double quotation marks represent an utterance
              Anything italicized represents a sentence
    Example: 

    From the explanation above, we can know the differences between utterance and sentence.
    Now,  see the sentences below.



    Based on the convention, say what is wrong with the following:
    • John announced Mary’s here
                 –  John announced “Mary’s here”
    • “Mary thought how nice John was”
                 – “Mary thought how nice John was” or
                 –  Mary thought how nice John was

    In conclusion, An utterance was in a particular accent, but a sentence was not Accent and voice quality belong strictly to the utterance.

    Monday, July 25, 2011

    Definition of Utterance and Sentences


    TO MORE UNDERSTANDING THIS MATERIAL, PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING OUT LOUD
    "I LOVE YOU"
    The same sentence was involved in the readings, but you made different utterances, i.e. unique physical events took place
    ===========================================================================
    DEFINITION UTTERANCES

    • An utterance is any stretch of talk, by one person, before and after which there is a silence on the part of that person
    • An UTTERANCE is the use by a particular person, on particular occasion, of a piece of language, such as a sequence of sentences, or a single phrase, or even a single word
    • Utterances are physical events. Events are ephemeral. Utterances die in the wind
    DEFINITION SENTENCES
    • A sentence is neither a physical event nor a physical  object. It is a string of words put together by the grammatical rules of the language. A sentence can be thought of as the IDEAL string of words behind various realizations in utterances and inscriptions.
    • A SENTENCE is a grammatically complete string of words expressing a complete thought